Modernization in Russian history of XVIII—XX centuries: starting conditions, realization mechanism and display peculiarities

Historical Science and Archeology

The characteristic features of Russian modernization variant are highlighted in the paper. The principal originality of author’s approach consists in war’s interpretation as Russian modernization factor. The theory of modernization was the basis of methodology. It was classically defined as the transition from the traditional society to modern one, from the agrarian society to industrial one. such interpretation allows studying Russian state transformations of XVIII–XX centuries in all spheres of society activities. The prolonged and problematic character of modernization processes is defined in comparison with the organic model of modernization transforms. That character was connected with the non-simultaneity of those processes. Special attention is paid to the absence of start conditions satisfactory forming for carrying out of modernization processes; to the overtaking model which was realized through “challenges” of the West to the Russian (Slavic) civilization; to political elite’s paramount importance for carrying out of modernization reforms; to the non-wholeness, i.e. the non-simultaneity of modernization transforms in the direction from economic sphere through the social and political one to the spiritual one. Materials of the paper can be used for effectiveness assessment of present reforms and for the new strategy of the Russian Federation political development formation.