The article deals with the problem of individualization and differentiation of cadets training in higher educational institutions of the troops of the national guard of Russia. Within the context of the transition of the education system to federal state educational standards, individualization and differentiation of training are considered as an effective mechanism for ensuring that each cadet achieves the goals of mastering the basic educational programs. The peculiarities of individualization and differentiation of training, the similarity and difference of these two concepts have been discussed. The article gives the methodological foundations of individualization and differentiation. Individualization of training along with differentiation of work with students is considered as a basis for implementing the principle of individual approach. Individualization and differentiation are assumed to create the necessary conditions for forming professionally significant personal qualities of future officers, based on the consideration of their individual characteristics and capabilities. We have concluded that the level of knowledge, skills, the students’ interest in mastering academic disciplines increase in the process of appropriately prepared and properly organized practical application of individualization and differentiation but these are undoubtedly rather labor-intensive organizational forms that are quite difficult to apply in practice, which means that the teacher has to possess substantial theoretical knowledge, high pedagogical skills, great experience, patience and high and stable motive education.