The article states that the vector of historical change is directed towards the origin and development of individual personality. The authors understand personality as a historical phenomenon which is the degree of man’s inner motivation and also as a relative independence from the outer social conditions. The article considers the main ideas of Ancient Greek religion, art and philosophy as the evidence of personal self-consciousness and independent action in the ancient world and claims that this is the result and the condition of the ancient world social practices. Such practices were the democratic mechanisms of the Ancient Greek society. Thus, the culture of this country and time became the starting point of the European cultural development with its system of basic values.