Article abstract

An abstract is a summary of the paper in academic databases and may serve as a standalone information source. The abstract should be enough for the reader to understand the gist of the study.

Abstract should follow structure of the article (IMRAD):

  • Problem statement;
  • Мethods;
  • Results;
  • Conclusion.

The abstract should not repeat or rephrase the paper title. The abstract should be concise and clear and contain no irrelevant information.

The abstract must be cohesive, its sentences logically following one another. Keywords from the paper’s body should be used.

The English abstract must contain 200-250 words (about 800 characters).