A well-constructed reference list serves to confirm that your research is valuable and up-to-date.

Citing the sources correctly is a guarantee that the references cited are taken into account when assessing the authors’ (and their organization’s) research.

The recommended number of references is at least 25 for review papers and at least 15 for original papers. At least 30% of the references should be to papers published in the last 5 years. Self-citations should not make up more than 10–20% of all references.


References may include scientific papers, monographs, collections of papers, conference proceedings, electronic resources (with access dates), and patents.

As a rule, references should not include dissertations and dissertation abstracts (these references are may only be included if the results of the research have not yet been published, or have not been presented in sufficient detail).

References should not include textbooks, teaching aids, lecture notes, GOST standards and other normative documents, laws and regulations, as well as archival documents (if these sources still have to be included, they are cited in footnotes ).

  • References are formatted as follows: A.A. Author, B.B. Author, C.C. Author, Title of article, Title of journal. 10 (2) (2005) 49-53.
  • Non-latin sources that have no translation into English are transliterated in the English-language reference list, with an approximate English translation given in square brackets. Sources are transliterated in accordance with the Library of Congress system (ALA-LC). (References are transliterated automatically once the manuscript is uploaded into the E-submission system).
  • References are given at the end of the text and in the order they appear in the text. Each reference number is enclosed in square brackets. The number of citations in the text should correspond to the number of sources in the reference list.
  • References to unpublished work are not allowed.

References to different types of sources should be formatted in accordance with the examples below.

CITATION EXAMPLE for “Terra Linguistica”.

[1] A.V. Rubtsova, N.I. Almazova, Strategy for developing professionally oriented foreign languages education in tertiary education, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal. Humanities and Social Sciences, 8 (2) (2017) 107–114. DOI: 10.18721/JHSS.8212


One-volume book

[2] S. Fuller, Philosophy of Science and Its Discontents, 2d ed., The Guilford Press, New York, London, 2013.

Multi-volume book

[3] E. Garin, History of Italian Philosophy, Vol. 1, Amsterdam - New-York: Rodopi, 2008.

Journal article

[4] S. Sudhahar, G.A. Velrti, N. Cristianini, Automated analysis of the US presidential elections using Big Data and network analysis, Big Data & Society, 2 (1) (2015) 1–28. DOI: 10.1177/2053951715572916

Electronic resource

[5] D. Goleman, Emotional intelligence: Issues in Paradigm Building, in: Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Available at: (accessed 19.06.2018).

Paper in proceedings or collection

[6] D. Goldhahn, Th. Eckart, U. Quasthoff, Building large monolingual dictionaries at the Leipzig Corpora Collection: From 100 to 200 languages. Proc. of the 8th International Conf. on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’12). 2012.