The article considers the history of the formation of the Chinese national identity in Taiwan. The historical background of the conquest of Taiwan by Japan is analyzed. The characteristics of the Japanese policy regarding the Taiwanese are given their national identity, caused by the Japanese policy, is investigated. The main stages of the formation of nationalism in Taiwan are analyzed. The article raises questions about the creation of Chinese nationalism in Taiwan, its origins. In the beginning, a brief historical essay is given, which examines the history of the island of Taiwan from the 3rd to the 19th century – the time of the largest and most important clashes between the indigenous inhabitants of the island and the Chinese, and further, from the 19th century to 1945, when Japan influenced the life of the island. In parallel, a study is conducted to the national identity of the Taiwanese population, its changes over time and the events that have affected it. In the end, a conclusion is drawn on the national question of Taiwan and the summary of the study.