The article is devoted to the history of the formation of the image of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Turks in the historical consciousness and national memory of Russians. The research is based on the material of novels. This source is clearly not widely used by professional historians, although in many respects the literary works, familiar to most of the population, have a major impact on the formation of the national historical memory. The article considers the transformation of the image depending on the changes in relations between the two States. The results of this work have allowed to come to the conclusion that in the framework of the national historical consciousness for a long time due to some historical reasons formed image of Turkey and Turks as an enemy. Overcoming this stereotype is one of the most urgent tasks in connection with the development of cooperation between the two countries.