The article investigates the Lower Volga region cities in socio-economic development of the country during the Great Patriotic War. Represented by the branch structure of the regional industry, marked by the growth of military production, shows the problems occurring in the light industry. The role of regional industrial cooperatives in the production of food and consumer goods. Revealed difficulties in the urban municipal enterprises. Marked changes in the social structure of the Lower Volga cities. It shows a set of measures for material and household care, necessary to preserve social and political stability in the rear and the organization of effective relief work of front.