Issues of polytechnic education in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century

Aspects of Russian society history

The relevance of this study is due to the need to thoroughly study the issues of polytechnic education in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. The methodological basis of the article is the principle of scientific objectivity when dealing with sources, excluding the impact of conditions on the analysis and interpretation of empirical data. Comparative-historical, formal-logical and structural and functional methods, along with a descriptive one, allowed the author to organize a considerable amount of factual information and identify the main sentiments in the Duma debate. The archival documents of the State Duma of the Russian Empire are analyzed in the article. Different approaches to polytechnic education by representatives of the political parties are disclosed. The basic course of discussions about the prospects of development of the national polytechnic school is shown. The problems hindering its development including the underestimation of the importance of polytechnic education are revealed. The archival materials presented in the article are first introduced into scientific use. They complement and develop our understanding of the national polytechnic school at the beginning of the 20th century. The reform of polytechnic education in Russia became the most urgent after the First World War. Plans to build a polytechnic school system in Russia were not implemented. Therefore, the Russian economy was not able to fully perform all tasks in the defense due to the lack of engineers and technicians. The material presented in the article can be used for studying the history of reforms of Higher Polytechnic School.