The article investigates to the problems of formation and development of the institute of the food inspectors in the first third of XX century. St. Petersburg – Petrograd – Leningrad. After analyzing the available materials and previously unpublished sources, the author comes to conclusion that, despite of the change of regime in Russia, the internal unity and continuity of the food control system was traced throughout the investigated period. However, due to the fact that, the organizational and legal principles of food surveillance were incorrectly laid, activities of sanitary and food experts was reduced as formal. The problem of the treatment to the issue of a permanent monitoring service in the field of food turnover is now becoming ever more relevant. It is primarily due to the fact that today the food security is at the forefront of priorities in the internal policy of the Russian Federation.