The article shows the resolution of background, content and impacts of the Swedish nuclear referendun 1980 dedicated to using of nuclear energy. Discussion of using this type of energy, which lasted several decades, received a boost in 1979 when the Riksdag political parties could not make agreement on the use of the country's nuclear arsenal. 1980 referendum showed that the Swedish society at that time was not ready to give up using nuclear energy, but approved a plan of phasing out nuclear power and transition to alternative energy sources. The plan, supported by Swedish Social Democratic Party is under realization so far, but with some delays. 4 reactors are planned to be closed in the next four years, the last one - in 2045. The referendum had a tremendous impact on the life of the country. A level of using and development of alternative energy sources rised, the basis for the transition to a policy of sustainable development was created, "green" political movement took shape and still plays an important role in society.