The article is dedicated to the work of the II International Scientific Conference “Arctic: History and Modernity”, which was held on April 19–20, 2017 at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The conference was organized by the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University and the St. Petersburg Peace and Harmony Council. Financial support was provided by the Alexander Gorchakov Public Diplomacy Fund. The conference was attended by 423 participants who were representatives of fundamental and applied science of the St. Petersburg, Moscow and other Russian regions, as well as foreign scientists and specialists from France, Norway, Italy and China. The authors of the article consider the main directions of the conference’s work, analyze the reports and communications delivered during the plenary session, the work of the sections and round tables, as well as the key issues of modern research on the Arctic region. The article’s conclusion is that the participants of the conference have developed recommendations on further research of the Arctic region based on reports, communications and discussions held during plenary and sectional sessions and round tables, and devised a set of specific scientific events that could be held in the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. It was noted that the conference’s participants suggested that the materials of the conference should be transmitted to the management of all subjects of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation in order to consider and further introduce innovative technologies and products for the implementation of the “Action Plan for the Implementation of the Arctic Zone Development Strategy and National Security for the Period to 2020”, approved by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation on August 30, 2016. In addition, it was decided to hold the III International Scientific Conference “Arctic: History and Modernity” on April 18–19, 2018.