This article is devoted to the analysis of the research results of military and industrial production problems in Russia during the World War I carried out by the Russian scientists and military-technical experts in the late 1910s–1920-ies. The features of the authors’ studies have been noted: ideological independence, unique documents and materials usage, reliance on personal experience in the field of study. Numerous causes of supply crisis in the Russian army associated to the state of the Russian military and industrial production system have been identified, and the assessments of these causes by the researchers have been demonstrated. From the perspective of the author’s views, the content has been revealed and the characteristic of the process of industry mobilization deployment has been given, its essential shortcomings have been indicated. Using the typology method, the views differences of the different schools representatives on the given problem have been demonstrated. The evolution of views on the features, the role and place of the military industry in the economy of the country has been studied. The complex use of modelling and abstraction methods allowed finding the contours of the future phenomenon of the Soviet era in the theoretical constructs of the authors, namely the military and industrial complex. A conclusion about the interrelation of the problems under consideration and about the significance of the researcher’s studies for the problems to be solved has been made.