The article focuses at historical and philosophical aspects of socio-cultural determination of the rise of science in coherence with the corresponding notions. Thus the actualization of the tasks of investigation of science as a specific type of cognitive activity as one of the elements of the spiritual evolution strategy as a system of ontological objects of philosophical historiographical reflection. The authors investigated the applications methods of the philosophical historiographical reconstruction (the first positivism, neo-positivism, post-positivism), the value of their heuristic meaning and the limits of application is given. The actual problem of history and historiography of science were defined based on epistemological “turns” of XX–XXI (ontological, linguistic, communicative). In this article the authors identified the conditions of coherence of the theoretical inventions of scientific rationality as an expression of the activity of historically-relative and successively derived cognitive practices with the instruments of hermeneutic and phenomenological analytics and the concept of “language-game” (L. Wittgenstein) as well as with the referential relevance. In conclusion the authors developed the argumentation of the original results of nonscientific context as generative structure of science. The authors also examined the reality of individual science history that can’t be reduced to the common history of spiritual European evolution. The authors indicated the criterion of separation of the history of science, as the authentic scheme of reconstruction of history of science.