The concept of metatranslation transposition as cognitive mechanism of the proper name-anthroponym reproduction in the other linguistic culture has been introduced in this article. The following concepts have been the theoretical basis of this research: the theory of the proper name, the theory of transposition, the concept of translation space, the theory of metatext and metatranslation. The aim of this study is to reveal cognitive components of metadiscursive activity of translator in the process of the proper name reproduction. Transposition of the proper names is studied in the aspect of interlanguage and cross-cultural dynamics determining their functioning in different linguistic cultures in accordance with the defined, culturally stipulated factors, which presuppose anthroponyms’ cultural marking and determine the choice of translation strategy in the process of transpositional conversion. In the center of the authors’ attention is not translator’s activity itself but translator’s creation of independent text aimed at successful reception of the text of translation by potential reader. It is mentioned the creation of translation metatext connected with the proper. As a result of study it has been revealed three types of metatranslation transposition depending on the metatext function: associative, explicative, actualizing. In the basis of these functions lies the translator’s cognitive activity oriented to the augment of recipient knowledge and it stipulates harmonic perception of translation discourse and its natural introduction to the receiving culture.