Objective of the study: Substantiation of the application of the clinical and linguistic examination method to determine the linguistic markers of mental disorders in patients with HIV infection who did not receive specific antiviral therapy. Research material: HIV-infected patients undergoing dispensary observation at the St. Petersburg State Center for the Prevention and Control of AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AIDS Center) who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The main inclusion criteria were the absence of organic changes in the central nervous system, severe mental disorders, and a history of psychoactive substance dependence syndromes. Psycholinguistic markers of the deterioration of the physical and mental state were determined. The identified psycholinguistic markers are additional signs that can be used by doctors of any profile to diagnose mental disorders in patients with HIV infection.