This study deals with the phenomenon of plurilingual education that has recently emerged in works on teaching and learning several foreign languages. The purpose of the article is to justify the existence of the newly-coined terms “plurilingual education” and “plurilingual training” for Russian linguodidactics. The reason lying behind this necessity is that there are several other terms in the Russian system which refer to studying and teaching more than one foreign language: multilingual education, multilingual training, polylingual education and polylingual training. In this study, we have employed the following methods: analysis, synthesis, induction and modeling. The study shows the correlation of the above-mentioned terms within the scope of the new paradigm adopted by the Council of Europe. The results can be used by researchers in the area of plurilingual education.